Learning Portfolio 4: Website credibility examples

Find a website for each type of credibility (i.e. presumed, reputed, surface, and earned) and upload snapshots of the websites on your blog site. Provide a brief explanation why the websites are credible.

Presumed credibility:

(ushistory.org, n.d.)
(ushistory.org, n.d.)

Looking at this as a user, I can presume that this website has a lot of information on US history; it seems to have free online textbooks, so the information they give out must be credible (based on presumption). The website’s domain also ends with .org, which is commonly used for schools, information-based sites, non-profit purposes, et cetera.

Reputed credibility:

(Yahoo! JAPAN, n.d.)
(Yahoo! JAPAN, n.d.)

In Japan, yahoo is the biggest search engine. It is referred to and endorsed by a lot of third parties (just like how google is over here). It has won awards such as ‘Apple Design Award‘ (Carlson, 2013).

 Surface credibility:

(Jisho.org, 2014)
(Jisho.org, 2014)

As a language student, it’s hard to find an online dictionary that is easy to use, and the designs are always rather ugly. However, one glance at jisho.org shows the good use of white space and simple layout, giving the credibility that it is designed to be easy to use.

Earned credibility:

(Ecu.summon.serialssolutions.com, n.d.)
(Ecu.summon.serialssolutions.com, n.d.)

As many students at ECU are thankful for, ECU’s library one search is consistently providing all kinds of information and research for assignments, and has done for years.


Carlson, N. (2013). Marissa Mayer’s Big Win: Yahoo Weather Wins An ‘Apple Design Award’. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com.au/yahoo-weather-wins-apple-design-award-2013-6

Ecu.summon.serialssolutions.com,. ECU Library One Search. Retrieved from http://ecu.summon.serialssolutions.com/

Jisho.org,. (2014). Jisho.org: Japanese Dictionary. Retrieved from http://jisho.org/

Ushistory.org,. US History. Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/

Yahoo! JAPAN,. Yahoo! JAPAN. Retrieved from http://www.yahoo.co.jp/


Learning Portfolio 4- Question 3: Possible web credibility in the future

Q3) the findings of Fogg’s studies conducted in 1999 and 2002 (see page 154 of this week’s reading) indicated that people’s perception of Web credibility has changed. For example, people’s perception on non-profit organisation websites has changed since 1999. This is because, nowadays, setting up a non-profit website is easy, and therefore the image of non-profit websites has lost its value. In dot points, in your own words, list anticipated issues that may affect the users’ perceived Web credibility in future (200 words)

List of possible issues that could affect our perceived web credibility in the future:

  • Many websites will require an email subscription in order to get more information
  • Number of scholar articles and websites will decrease
  • The website will focus on design more than the content
  • More scam websites
  • The number of ads will increase with the number of internet users
  • Websites layout could become so simple that it’s hard to navigate
  • Many will become out of date extremely quickly
  • More websites that require a log in (and some cases payment) to acquire information
  • Less and less websites citing their resources
  • More websites designed to make money than to offer credible information
  • As more and more websites are being made, a lot of companies won’t have their site name and domain name matching, which reduces credibility
  • More sites will be hosted by a third party
  • Emails will become like a storage bin for useless emails from websites that you had to sign up for, rather than for the purpose of contacting others
  • More dead links
  • More chance of plagiarism, as less websites are being cited
  • Un-credible websites will be easier to find than credible ones, as they are a lot easier to make—anyone can make one.


Fogg, B. J. (2003) Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Learning Portfolio 4- Question 2: Wikipedia

Q2) in the learning portfolio, Wikipedia is not accepted as a credible resource for academic assignments. What do you think is the reason Wikipedia is not accepted?

In order to create decent academic assignments, we are told to look for more scholar-like resources when searching on the web (e.g. journal articles) for assignments, so a website like Wikipedia is not accepted for use. While Wikipedia pretty much puts encyclopaedias out of business, the main factor of this is because the pages can be written and/ or edited by anyone on the internet; and thus is not a credible resource. It’s like a big internet database written by users of the internet for users of the internet. It’s because of this that parts of Wikipedia articles may have bias or untruthful content, which explained by Fogg (2003), websites that convey qualities of trustworthiness and expertise will attract more people and be seen as more credible, especially when the website is viewed as unbiased, knowledgable and have direct contact to the posts or sites’ writer (Fogg, 2003).

Wikipedia has a reputation of having fake information or biased opinions edited into the website, and so while it can be a good place to scan through to get an idea of what you’re researching, for academic assignments it’s better to look for research where there are high levels of expertise on the given topic.


Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Learning Portfolio 4- Question 1: Why evaluation of web credibility is important

Q1) the author of this week’s article (Fogg) discussed credibility as a key attribute to evaluate online resources. In your own words, describe why it is important that we evaluate credibility of websites. In your discussion, provide an example of how credibility of the Web resources could affect you as a student.

Nowadays, making a webpage is a very easy thing to do, and because of this, there are many websites that lack credibility and will give out false or bias information—and it’s up to us to figure out which website has the correct information we want, and which ones don’t. In order to do this, we have to evaluate the credibility of the website, “A website should come across as both trustworthy and knowledgeable.” (Moss, 2015). There’s a lot of deceiving content on the web that can affect those who search and rely on information from the internet, and end up getting false information as a consequence (Schwarz & Morris, 2011).

Credibility is perceived; it’s up to us to decide whether it is trustworthy or not. It is necessary for us to look at the design (is it well thought out? Is the information easy to find? Is it organised?), and the trustworthiness and level of expertise (Are there references? Have other people recommended the website? Who is the author, what is their profession?). Nowadays, only 52.8% of internet users believe that information found online is credible (Moss, 2015).

As a student, credibility is an extremely important factor to consider when searching online for information on assignments et cetera. Should the information by incorrect or bias, it could affect my grade and own work greatly. For example, students have been told to avoid websites such as blogs of wikis, because of the chance of false and bias information being a lot higher than other resources.


Moss, T. (2015). Web credibility: The basics. webcredible. Retrieved from http://www.webcredible.com/blog-reports/web-credibility/basics.shtml

Schwarz, J., & Morris, M. (2011). Augmenting Web Pages and Search Results to Support Credibility Assessment (1st ed.). Vancouver, BC, Canada: Microsoft. Retrieved from http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/merrie/papers/WebCredibility_CHI2011.pdf

Learning Portfolio 3: Image examples

Provide 3 visual examples of products or artifacts (found in everyday surroundings) that satisfy the design principle of Performance load. Upload them on your blog site with a brief explanation why the products satisfied the design principle.

(Aliexpress.com, n.d.)
(Aliexpress.com, n.d.)

More commonly known in Japan, light switches exist so that we don’t have to get up and switch off the light switch by hand—we just need to press a button on the remote, and it switches the lights on or off. This practise reduces kinematic load, as we don’t need to get up to switch off the lights as long as we have the remote within our reach. Especially convenient for when you’re tucked up in bed and don’t want to get up just to switch the light off.

(Elley, 2012)
(Elley, 2012)

Visa card paywave has become increasingly popular within the last few years—just a quick tap on the EFTPOS machine and you’re good to go, decreasing both kinematic and cognitive load, as you no longer necessarily need to remember your pin, and thus you aren’t entering your pin on the machine, or sliding/ inserting the card.

(Atomic Plumbing, n.d.)
(Atomic Plumbing, n.d.)

To make doing dishes a lot quicker (and a lot less painful), many of us use dishwashers to do the job for us. Having a dishwasher means that this will reduce kinematic load dramatically, and it saves water, too.


Aliexpress.com,. http://www.aliexpress.com/store/product/Japan-s-intelligent-high-grade-solid-wood-remote-control-lamp-dome-light-sitting-room-the-bedroom/1088151_1854158232.html.

Atomic Plumbing,. Retrieved from http://www.atomicplumbing.com/plumbing-services/dishwasher-installation-virginia-beach-norfolk/

Elley, R. (2012). Retrieved from http://mozo.com.au/blog/2012/01/paywave-and-paypass-credit-cards-answered/

Learning Portfolio 3- Question 3: Psychology in design

Q3) The authors borrowed ideas traditionally studied by the psychology to discuss effective visual design. Why do you think a study of psychology is necessary (or not necessary) in design (100 – 150 words)?

A lot of perception based on design is to do with psychology and how individual brains work, so incorporating the study of psychology in design makes sense. Investing psychology into design can help out understanding how to organise a design—for example, splitting things up so that the user can find things easier, without having to look so much that it becomes too much hard work to use the item—the more things you need to do in order to get something working puts more stress on your cognitive load. Take the Gestalt theory, which proves that our brains naturally organises information into a more orderly manner; making things easier to understand and remember. Companies incorporate this into their designs to make sure consumers remember their brands over others, an example being, “Coca-Cola’s Summer drinks can also uses this tool, creating the shape of a Coke bottle out of the negative space between two flip-flops – forging the association between summer and the soft drink.” (Richardson Taylor, n.d.).


Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148-149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Richardson Taylor, A. The psychology of design explained. Digital Arts Online. Retrieved from http://www.digitalartsonline.co.uk/features/graphic-design/psychology-of-design-explained/

Learning Portfolio 3- Question 2: Chunking

Q2) The authors mentioned a design technique of “chunking” information to reduce cognitive load. Define and describe the chunking technique in relation to design and visual communication.

Our cognitive load is reduced when we aren’t trying to memorize a huge chunk of information—especially in a short amount of time. A relative to this is the phrase, “chunking”, such as splitting a checklist into different categories. Another example would be Chinese or Japanese students learning kanji, which from experience, is no easy task. By memorising the specific stroke order, it reduces our cognitive load and thus we are breaking it down into units of information. Simply put, chunking is a technique we use that splits numerous pieces of information into smaller sets of pieces, thus making the information easier to remember (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003).

an image example of chunking (Malamed, n.d.).
an image example of chunking (Malamed, n.d.).

Designers tend to involve chunking into their work because it simplifies their designs, in which minimises performance load as much as possible. By removing unnecessary information, kinematic load is greatly reduced. Upon designing course work for a potential learner, the designer must keep in mind that if all the information is presented in one chunk, the learner will find it hard to process the information—by layering it out into chunks, it’s easier to read and process. Think of chunking as splitting information into “Bite-sized pieces.” (Malamed, n.d.).

Designers work hard to take out all the unnecessary information, as it just adds confusion and makes it harder to memorise and chunk, thus chunking only the information that people need in order to recall or retain, and divide the information into 4 units.

A good quote for chunking is “Less is more”.


Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 40). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Malamed, C. Chunking example. Retrieved from http://theelearningcoach.com/elearning_design/chunking-information/

Malamed, C. Chunking Information for Instructional Design. The elearning coach. Retrieved from http://theelearningcoach.com/elearning_design/chunking-information/

Learning Portfolio 3- Question 1: Summary

Q1) In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the topic(s) of the article.

Performance load is the basis of design, measuring how well we can do things depending on how much effort is needed to complete the task at hand. The chance of producing something of a good standard will be based on the mental effort (cognitive load), and physical effort (kinematic load)—the less effort taken, the higher chances of success. (doctordisruption, 2011).

Explained by Cooper (1998), cognitive load relies on much of our working memory; but as our memory is limited within it’s capacity and term of memory, too much cognitive load can disrupt our learning process (Cooper, 1998). Things like inserting a change card into a slot machine and using remotes to unlock car doors are some examples for kinematic load. (Lidwell, Holden, Butler & Elam, 2010).

As Fritz, R. (2014) says, “When you are able to shift to a structure that leads to resolution rather than oscillation, you will increase not only your possibility for further accomplishment but also your probability for further accomplishment.” (Fritz, 2014)


Cooper, G. (1998). Research into Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design at UNSW. [Retrieved from http://dwb4.unl.edu/Diss/Cooper/UNSW.htm ]

Fritz, R. (2014). The Path of Least Resistance. Burlington: Elsevier Science.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., & Elam, K. (2010). Universal principles of design. Beverly, Mass.: Rockport Publishers.

Principles of Design #36 – Performance Load. (2011). Doctor disruption. Retrieved from http://www.doctordisruption.com/design/principles-of-design-36-performance-load/

Learning Porfolio 2 – Question 2 Examples

Q2) Study 3 examples (e.g. products found in everyday surroundings) that meet the principle of consistency. Provide a reasoned explanation for each example why they meet the design principle

(Google Tech Suppliers, 2015)

The remote control is possibly one of the most consistent yet inconsistent items. It’s a great basis of functional consistency—for example, it allows us to switch between channels, record a program, speed through ads, change the volume, etc; however, it also has a major inconsistency where pretty much each remote control is different, depending on the brand or purpose. We all know a remote when we see one, though how to use it is a different story. Yet essentially we all know that the plus and minus signs are to turn the volume up and down, the opposite facing arrows are what we press to change the channel, and especially on Foxtel remotes, the green button is the one we press in order to record a selected program.

(Nace, 2013)
(Nace, 2013)

A good example of an aesthetic consistency, which “refers to consistency of style and appearance (e.g., a company logo that uses a consistent font, colour and graphic.” (Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2003, pp. 46), is twitter’s very famous logo. If you use the internet, it’s pretty much a given that you know about twitter and it’s light blue coloured logo with a white silhouette of a bird in the centre. When you want to share something on twitter from another website, just look for this specific icon—it’ll be there—and it’ll be very easy to spot. Upon seeing the twitter icon, we know it’s a social networking site; internet users will feel very familiar with it, as it’s associated with talking, socialising, and sharing.

(Solid Color Neckties, 2015)
(Solid Color Neckties, 2015)

School uniform is one of the most commonly known internal consistencies. They have been designed in a way that everyone knows where the students who are wearing them are from—or at least have an idea. They’ll have the same logo, pattern, colour, or in some cases, tie, that lets you know what school specifically they are from. They work in such a way that upon seeing someone in a school uniform, you know without thinking that they are a student. The internal consistency comes from what they specifically are wearing, and how it is repeated with each student. School uniforms have been carefully designed this way, and are also a good example for aesthetic and functional consistency.


Google Tech Suppliers,. (2015). TV Remote. Retrieved from


Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of

Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Nace, T. (2013). Twitter logo. Retrieved from http://techmarketingbuffalo.com/twitter-logo-


Solid Color Neckties,. (2015). Example of school uniform. Retrieved from


Learning Portfolio 2- Question 1: Summary

Q1)In your own words, write a summary of the article and provide critical analysis/discussion on the topic of the article.

 There are four main kinds of consistency—Aesthetic, functional, internal and external. Consistency is when similar items are used in similar ways, and thus gains our familiarity and trust. Humans naturally work better with a system—and in this case, consistency. Consistency measures what we are comfortable with. Simply put, “Consistency becomes something like a promise that you make to the user.” (Cole, 2012).

As Jonathan Grudin explains in The Case Against User Interface Consistency, although we rely on consistency for intricate designs, even more familiar consistency can be found in the kitchen. We know exactly what utensils like knives do and where they go in the drawers; they’re so consistent that we don’t even need to think about how to use them, as we’ve been using them repeatedly all our lives. To us, consistency is our familiarity with our surroundings.

Consistency helps us find our way around places. We know that if we’re lost—be it in an airport, a park, or on the motorway—just look for signs. Signs are Internally consistent—we know that they have been carefully designed so that we don’t become lost with no way out of it.

It is especially found on websites, as quoted in Web Design Introductory, “You can create visual consistency by repeating design features—type face, content position, colour scheme across all pages at a site. Repeating design features and content… strengthens a web pages identity and bran, and maintains visual consistency.”

When things become inconsistent, it becomes a problem for us. If for example, an iphone app updates with a new layout, then we have to learn how to use the app all over again, and for a lot of people, this creates confusion, while when things are consistent, we don’t have to think too much for ourselves, and it creates a safe boundary—consistency is already doing half the work for us. Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context explains that placing elements consistently helps users recognise the consistency, and from there, benefit from it by transferring this knowledge to other contexts. (Badre. A, 2002).

Most of all, consistency helps us learn. Consistency is constantly allowing people to transfer their experience into new innovations; it allows faster learning, especially when similar items have similar ways of working. (Lidwell, 2015).


Badre, A. (2002). Shaping Web usability. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

Cole, D. (2012). Why is consistency important in design?. Quora. Retrieved from


Grudin, J. (1989). The case against user interface consistency. Commun. ACM, 32(10), 1164-1173.


Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of

Design (pp. 46). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Lidwell, W., Butler, J., & Holden, K. (2015). The pocket universal principles of design. Beverly, MA:

Rockport Publishers.

Shelly, G., & Campbell, J. (2012). Web design. Boston, Mass.: Course Technology, Cenage Learning.